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Posts in Category: 'LS-DYNA'


Datapoint Newsletter: Fall '16, Volume 22.4

CAETestBench Validations; Matereality Enterprise Workflows; Latest Publications Available on Knowmats

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Plastics Rubbers Metals Hyperelastic Plasticity Rate Dependency Automotive Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS RADIOSS Newsletters Validation 3D Printing


Using Mid-stage Validation to Increase Confidence in Simulation of TPOs

Finite element analysis of plastics contains assumptions and uncertainties that can affect simulation accuracy. It is useful to quantify these effects prior to using simulation for real-life applications. A mid-stage validation uses a controlled physical test on a standardized part to compare results from simulation to physical experiment. These validations do not use real-life parts but carefully designed geometries that probe the accuracy of the simulation; the geometries themselves can be tested with boundary conditions that can be simulated correctly. In one study, a quasi-static three-point bending experiment of a standardized parallel ribbed plate is performed and simulated, using Abaqus. A comparison of the strain fields resulting from the complex stress state on the face of the ribs obtained by digital image correlation (DIC) vs. simulation is used to quantify the simulation's fidelity. In a second study, a dynamic dart impact experiment is validated using LS-Dyna probing the multi-axial deformation of a polypropylene until failure.

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Mechanical Plastics Automotive Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus Presentations Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '16, Volume 22.3

Support for GISSMO, New Book, SDPD Workflow for Materials

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Mechanical High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Newsletters Validation


Damage Modeling under Impact Loading in Talc-Filled Polypropylene Compounds

Topics covered: Damage in mineral filled polypropylene under impact conditions; damage modeling and parameter identification (prior art, LyondellBasell contributions, debate in the CAE community); experimental and numerical validation; next steps

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive Material Supplier High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Presentations


A Standardized Mechanism to Validate Crash Models for Ductile Plastics

Quantifying simulation accuracy before running crash simulations could be a helpful confidence building measure. This study continues our development of a mechanism to validate material models for plastics used in modeling high-speed impact. Focusing on models for isotropic materials that include options for rate dependency and failure, we explore other models commonly used for ductile plastics including MAT089 and MAT187.

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive Toys/Sporting Goods Packaging High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


Determination and Use of Material Properties for Finite Element Analysis: Book Review

This book is intended to be a companion to the NAFEMS book, "An Introduction to the Use of Material Models in FE". It informs Finite Element Analysis users of the manner and methodologies by which materials are tested in order to calibrate material models currently implemented in various FEA programs. While the authors seek first to satisfy the basic material models outlined in the companion book, they make important extensions to FEA used in currently active areas including explicit simulation.

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Mechanical Plastics Rubbers Foams Metals Hyperelastic Visco-elastic Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive Biomedical Building Materials Consumer Products Energy and Petroleum Material Supplier Furniture Industrial Goods CAE Vendor/Supplier Packaging Home Appliances Research Laboratory High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS DIGIMAT SolidWorks MSC.DYTRAN MSC.MARC MSC.NASTRAN NX Nastran PAM-COMFORT PAM-CRASH RADIOSS SIMULIA Book Review


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '16, Volume 22.2

Focus on Validation, STEM Education, New Test Apparatus, Support for Altair HyperWorks

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Mechanical LS-DYNA Abaqus RADIOSS Newsletters Validation


Numerical simulation of the laser scoring line behavior in airbag deployment

The airbag door system is one of the most delicate aspects in the design phase of a car instrument panel: seamless systems are increasingly used, which combine styling criteria with good functional performances. These systems typically include a tear seam, which may be obtained through laser scoring, to pre-determine the location of the opening during airbag deployment. The design of the scoring line is currently validated through experimental tests on real life exemplars, submitted to airbag deployment, resulting in high development times and relevant costs. This is the main reason which suggests proposing numerical simulation in the design phase, not to substitute actual part homologation by testing but in order to limit the scope and complexity of the experimental campaign, thus reducing the development costs and the time to market. So far, modeling the scoring line has been difficult due to limitations in the testing methods and simulation codes available to the industry. The methodology proposed in this paper takes advantage from the availability of a material law as LS-Dyna SAMP-1, with polymer-dedicated plasticity, damage model and strain-rate dependent failure criteria, which is supported by local strain measurement used for material characterization. The method, here described in detail, is validated on a benchmark test, consisting in the real and virtual testing on a variety of scoring profiles obtained on a polypropylene box submitted to high speed impact test.

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Plasticity Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


Characterization of Polyolefins for Design Under Impact: from True Stress/ Local Strain Measurements to the F.E. Simulation with LS-Dyna Mat. SAMP-1

Optical strain measurement for the mechanical characterization of polymers, and in particular of polyolefins, is becoming a common practice to determine the parameters to be used in a finite element analysis of crash problems. This experimental technique allows measuring the strain locally on the specimen, so that it is particularly suitable when the deformation is localized, as in the case of polymers: therefore a more accurate description of the behaviour of the material is obtained. By so doing, it is possible to describe the material constitutive law in terms of the true, local strain and of the true stress. As these data are those needed by the most complete material models developed for impact calculation, it is clear that this technique is particularly suitable for coupling with the most advanced material models currently available in the F.E. codes, as for instance with Mat 187 (SAMP-1) of LS-Dyna. The local measurement of the strain can also be used for evaluating the volume strain, whose evolution with the increasing strain shows that for PP-based material the deformation is not isochoric in most the cases. The observed increase in the material volume reflects the fact that voids generate and coalesce within the material, possibly resulting in fracture. The measure of the volume strain, computed as the trace of the strain tensor, is here used for determining the damage function utilized by the damage model implemented in SAMP-1. The effective stress is here estimated as the stress which would be measured if the deformation was isochoric, and it can be assessed on the basis of the measurement of the longitudinal local strain only. Corresponding to each value of longitudinal strain, the volume strain is then used to calculate the ratio between the effective and the true stress. Adopting this procedure, the damage function is thus determined without the needs of repeated loading-unloading tests used to derive the damage parameter from the unloading slope, which is furthermore difficult to be measured. As an application, the results of the numerical reproduction of a benchmark test, consisting in a drop test on a polypropylene box, are presented and discussed

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Simulating anisotropy with Ls-dyna in glass-reinforced, polypropylene-based components

Glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GF PP) materials are increasingly being used by customers to replace metal and engineering polymers in structural automotive applications. Like all glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, GF PP products can show anisotropy caused by fiber orientation that is induced by the injection process. Taking into account fiber orientation in the simulations enables designers to improve the accuracy of the analyses. This can help prevent arbitrary choices and assumptions when setting material parameters, which become mandatory when an isotropic material law is used. The method proposed in this paper takes advantage of the availability within Ls-dyna of an anisotropic material law (MAT_103), which allows simplified modeling to address critical issues. This law was not developed to address the problem discussed here. Therefore, this paper illustrates a simplified approach. The presence of glass reinforced fibers is taken into account by running a mold-filling analysis, and then transferring the material flow orientation in to the structural simulation as a material angle. The dependence of the material failure strain on the material orientation can be also easily modeled through a user subroutine. Finally, the approach only requires simple material data based on basic tensile tests; the material law parameters are then identified through optimization techniques. Although this approach is based on some simplifying assumptions, its application is quick and can help the designer obtain more accurate results with respect to the traditional isotropic approach. A selection of validation tests is then proposed that show reliable predictions using limited additional computational effort.

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '15, Volume 21.3

Material Model Validation, New Knowledge Hub

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Rate Dependency LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS Newsletters Validation


Caratterizzazione di materiali plastici: misure locali di deformazione per la simulazione ad elementi finiti di problemi di impatto

Questo articolo si propone di illustrare l’importanza dell’utilizzo di metodi per la misura delle proprietà locali del materiale per determinarne la legge di comportamento. Vengono di seguito presentati alcuni esempi che evidenziano quanto più accurate e realistiche siano le simulazioni numeriche di test di trazione ad alta velocità su provini di poliolefine, quando vengano utilizzate proprietà dei materiali rilevate con misure locali, utilizzando metodi ottici. La disponibilità di misure locali e più accurate evidenzia come sia necessario che nei codici di calcolo commerciali vengano implementate delle leggi di materiale più sofisticate di quelle disponibili attualmente, che sono state per lo più originariamente sviluppate per materiali metallici, e dunque non riescono sempre a predire correttamente il comportamento dei componenti in materiali polimerici.

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Enhanced Failure Prediction in Sheet Metal Forming Simulations through Coupling of LS-DYNA and Algorithm Crach

"In sheet-metal-forming the forming limit curve (FLC) is used for ductile sheets to predict fracture in deep drawing. However the use of the FLC is limited to linear strain paths. The initial FLC cannot be used in a complex nonlinear strain history of a deep drawing process or a successive stamp and crash process including a significant change in strain rate. The CRACH software has been developed to predict the forming limit of sheets for nonlinear strain paths [1]. It has been validated to predict instability for bilinear strain paths with static loading in the first path and dynamic loading in the second path for mild steels [2]. As the postprocessing of strain paths from single finite elements in CRACH is not economic for industrial applications MATFEM initiated a project to couple CRACH directly with FEM-Code LS-DYNA using a userdefined material model. This allows a prediction of possible failure during the simulation for all elements with respect to their complete strain history. A special strategy has been developed to include CRACH without extensive increase in total CPU time. The developed interface to LS-DYNA allows also the implementation of other failure criteria demanding the history of deformation like for example a tensorial fracture criterion. In order to test the reliability of the calculated safety factor experimental tests for bilinear strain paths have been simulated [2]. In this case the experimental and numerical investigations have been made on two-stage forming processes (static in the 1st stage and both static/dynamic in the 2nd stage) . The static-static case should simulate a stamping process with bilinear strain path. The static-dynamic case should simulate a successive stamp and crash process. The simulation of a complex deep drawing problem including areas with significantly nonlinear strain paths has been simulated with LS-DYNA/CRACH-coupling. It can be shown that the prediction of CRACH can differ significantely from a “standard” prediction based on the initial FLC. The coupling of LS-DYNA and CRACH showed the potential to predict possible fracture in deep drawing and crash loading at an early design stage and allowed to optimise geometry and material quality to significantly reduce later problems in real components."

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Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


A Systematic Approach to Model Metals, Compact Polymers and Structural Foams in Crash Simulations with a Modular User Material

"Today the automotive industry is faced with the demand to build light fuel-efficient vehicles while optimizing its crashworthiness and stiffness. A wide variety of new metallic and polymeric materials have been introduced to account for these increased requirements. Numerical analysis can significantly support this process if the analysis is really predictive. Within the numerical model a correct characterization of the material behaviour – including elasto-viscoplastic behaviour and failure - is substantial. The particular behaviour of each material group must be covered by the material model. The user material model MF GenYld+CrachFEM allows for a modular combination of phenomenological models (yield locus, strain hardening, damage evolution, criteria for fracture initiation) to give an adequate representation of technical materials. This material model can be linked to LS-DYNA when using the explicit-dynamic time integration scheme. This paper gives an overview on the material characterization of ultra high strength steels (with focus on failure prediction), non-reinforced polymers (with focus on anisotropic hardening of polymers), and structural foams (with focus on compressibility and stress dependent damage evolution) with respect to crash simulation. It will be shown that a comprehensive material model - including damage and failure behaviour - enables a predictive simulation without iterative calibration of material parameters. A testing programme has been done for each material group in order to allow a fitting of the parameters of the material model first. In a second step different component tests have been carried out, which were part of a systematic procedure to validate the appropriate predictions of the crash behaviour with LS-Dyna and user material MF_GenYld+CrachFEM for each material group."

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Mechanical Plastics Foams Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Improved Plasticity and Failure models for Extruded MgProfiles in Crash Simulations

"The Crash Simulation of Magnesium Structures with Finite Element Methods demands the use of suitable material and failure models. An associated plasticity model describing the complex asymmetric yield behaviour in tension and compression of Mg extrusions has been developed during the InMaK-project (Innovative Magnesium Compound Structures for Automobile Frames) supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Differences to the material model 124 in LS-DYNA are exposed. In order to describe the failure behaviour of Mg extrusions under multiaxial loading in FEM crash simulation this constitutive model has been combined with a fracture model for ductile and shear fracture. The fracture model has been added to the user defined constitutive magnesium model in LS-DYNA. The experimental investigations carried out on model components are compared with numerical derived results. Experimental methods for fracture parameter evaluation are shown and general aspects of metal failure due to fracture as well as different modelling techniques are discussed."

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Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Development, implementation and Validation of 3-D Failure Model for Aluminium 2024 for High Speed Impact Applications

FAA William J Huges Technical Center (NJ) conducts a research project to simulate failure in aeroengines and fuselages, main purpose is blade-out containment studies. This involved the implementation in LS-DYNA of a tabulated generalisation of the Johnson-Cook material law with regularisation to accommodate simulation of ductile materials.

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Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Presentations Validation


Theoretical Development of an Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Generalized Composite Material Model

The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive industries. While there are several composite material models currently available within LS-DYNA, there are several features that have been identified that could improve the predictive capability of a composite model. To address these needs, a combined plasticity and damage model suitable for use with both solid and shell elements is being developed and is being implemented into LS-DYNA as MAT_213. A key feature of the improved material model is the use of tabulated stress-strain data in a variety of coordinate directions to fully define the stress-strain response of the material. To date, the model development efforts have been focused on creating the plasticity portion of the model. The Tsai-Wu development efforts have focused on creating the plasticity portion of the model. The Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic material model with a non-associative flow rule. The coefficients of the yield function, and the stresses to be used in both the yield function and the flow rule are computed based on the input stress-strain curves using the effective plastic strain as the tracking variable. The coefficients in the flow rule are computed based on the obtained stress-strain data. The developed material model is suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA for use in analyzing the nonlinear response of polymer composites.

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Mechanical Plasticity Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Composites Research Papers Validation


Verification and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Generalized Composite Material Model

"A general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic computational constitutive material model has been developed to accurately predict the response of composites subjected to high velocity impact. The three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model is being implemented initially for solid elements in LS-DYNA® as MAT213. In order to accurately represent the response of a composite, experimental stress-strain curves are utilized as input, allowing for a more general material model that can be used on a variety of composite applications. The theoretical details are discussed in a companion paper. This paper documents the implementation, verification and validation of the material model using the T800-F3900 fiber/resin composite material."

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Mechanical Plasticity Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Composites Research Papers Validation


A Material Model for Transversely Anisotropic Crushable Foams in LS-DYNA

"Recently new materials were introduced to enhance different aspects of automotive safety while minimizing the weight added to the vehicle. Such foams are no longer isotropic but typically show a preferred strong direction due to their manufacturing process. Different stress/ strain curves are obtained from material testing in different directions. A new material model was added to the LS-DYNA code in order to allow a correct numerical simulation of such materials. Ease-of-use was a primary concern in the development of this user-subroutine: we required stress/ strain curves from material testing to be directly usable as input parameters for the numerical model without conversion. The user-subroutine is implemented as MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM, Mat law 142 in LS-DYNA Version 960-1106. In this paper we summarize the background of the material law and illustrate some applications in the field of interior head-impact. The obvious advantage of incorporating such detail in the simulation lies in the numerical assessment of impacts that are slightly offset with respect to the foam’s primary strength direction."

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Mechanical Foams Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Nonlinear viscoelastic modeling for foams

Lightweight design is one of the major principles in automotive engineering and has made polymer materials to inherent parts of modern cars. In addition to their lightweight thermoplastics, elastomers, fabric and composites also incur important functions in passive safety. In the age of virtual prototyping, assuring these functions requires the accurate modeling of the mechanical behavior of each component. Due to their molecular structure, polymer materials often show viscoelastic characteristics such as creep, relaxation and recovery. However, considering the general state of the art in crash simulation, the viscoelastic characteristics are mainly neglected or replaced by viscoplastic or hyperelastic and strain rate dependent material models. This is either due to the available material models that are often restricted to linear viscoelasticity and thus cannot model the experimental data or due to the time consuming parameter identification. In this study, a nonlinear viscoelastic material model for foams is developed and implemented as a user material subroutine in LS-DYNA. The material response consists of an equilibrium and a non-equilibrium part. The first one is modeled with a hyperelastic formulation based on the work of Chang [8] and formerly implemented as *MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM in LS-DYNA (*MAT_083). The second one includes the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior following the multiple integral theory by Green and Rivlin [9]. The polyurethane foam Confor CF-45 used as part of the legform impactor in pedestrian safety was chosen for its highly nonlinear viscoelastic properties to test the presented approach. The investigation shows the ability of the method to reliably simulate some important nonlinear viscoelastic phenomena such as saturation.

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Mechanical Foams Visco-elastic Automotive Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Research Papers


Development of Material Input Data for Solid Elements under Crash Loads

"Heavy trucks have large masses and only small deformation zones. Because of this, they are loaded relatively severe in case of a crash. Under those conditions structural response is characterised not only by plastic deformation but also by failure in terms of cracks or fracture. Hence, failure prediction is essential for designing such parts. The following article describes the procedure of generating material models for failure prognosis of solid parts in the Commercial Vehicles Division at Daimler. Sheet metal parts are mostly discretised by shell elements. In this case the state of stress is characterized by hydrostatic pressure over von-Mises effective stress, the so-called triaxiality. For many real-life load cases which can be modeled by thin shells this ratio is between –2/3 and –2/3. Within this range the Gurson material model with the Tvergaard Needlemann addition leads to sufficiently accurate results. Furthermore, the Gurson material model allows considering the effect of element size, which amongst others is important for ductile materials. Most often however, in the case of solid parts the state of stress is more complex, which results in a triaxiality smaller than –1 or larger than 2/3. Gurson material models are usually validated based on shell meshes and tensile tests with flat bar specimen. If applied to solid parts, these models tend to underpredict failure . Thus, for solid parts the GURSON_JC material model is used. The Johnson Cook parameters are derived from an existing Gurson material model. Afterwards the material model is adapted to test results by modifying the load curve giving failure strain against triaxiality. This requires tensile tests"

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Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fracture in Aluminium

"To assess the problem of containment after a blade-off accident in an aero-engine by numerical simulation the FAA has instigated a research effort concerning failure prediction in a number of relevant materials. Aluminium kicked off the program which involved an intensive testing program providing failure data under different states of stress, different strain rates and different temperatures. In particular split Hopkinson bars were used to perform dynamic punch tests on plates of different thicknesses allowing to investigate the transition between different failure modes such as petaling and plugging. Ballistic impact tests were performed at NASA GRC for the purpose of validation. This paper focuses on the numerical simulation effort and a comparison with experimental data is done. The simulations were performed with LS-DYNA and a tabulated version of the Johnson-Cook material law was developed in order to increase the generality, flexibility and user-friendliness of the material model."

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Mechanical Metals Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


A Constitutive Formulation for Polymers Subjected to High Strain Rates

"Reliable prediction of the behavior of structures made from polymers is a topic under considerable investigation in engineering practice. Especially, if the structure is subjected to dynamic loading, constitutive models considering the mechanical behavior properly are still not available in commercial finite element codes yet. In our paper, we present a new constitutive law for polymers which recovers important phenomena like necking, crazing, strain rate dependency, unloading behavior and damage. In particular, different yield surfaces in compression and tension and strain rate dependent failure, the latter with damage induced erosion, is taken into account. All relevant parameters are given directly in the input as load curves, i.e. time consuming parameter identification is not necessary. Moreover, the models by von Mises and Drucker-Prager are included in the description as special cases. With the present formulation, standard verification test can be simulated successfully: tensile and compression test, shear test and three point bending tests."

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Mechanical Plastics Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


A Comparative Review of Damage and Failure Models and a Tabulated Generalization

"Reliable prediction of damage and failure in structural parts is a major challenge posed in engineering mechanics. Although solid material models predicting the deformation behaviour of a structure are increasingly available, reliable prediction of failure remains still open. With SAMP (a Semi-Analytical Model for Polymers), a general and flexible plasticity model is available in LS-DYNA since version 971. Although originally developed for plastics, the plasticity formulation in SAMP is generally applicable to materials that exhibit permanent deformation, such as thermoplastics, crushable foam, soil and metals. In this paper, we present a generalized damage and failure procedure that has been implemented in SAMP and will be available in LS-DYNA soon. In particular, important effects such as triaxiality, strain rate dependency, regularization and non-proportional loading are considered in SAMP. All required physical material parameters are provided in a user-friendly tabulated way. It is shown that our formalism includes many different damage and failure models as special cases, such as the well-known formulations by Johnson-Cook, Chaboche, Lemaitre and Gurson among others. "

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Mechanical Plastics Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Accuracy Issues in the Simulation of Quasi-Static Experiments for the Purpose of Mesh Regularization

Generating a LS-DYNA material model from cupon-level quasi-static experimental data, developing appropriate failure characteristics, and scaling these characteristics to mesh sizes appropriate for a variety of simulation models requires a regularization procedure. During an Investigation of an anisotropic material model for extruded aluminum, numerical accuracy issues led to unrealistic mesh regularization curves and non-physical simulation behavior. Sensitivity problems due to constitutive material behavior, small mesh sizes, single precision simulations, and simulated test velocity all contributed to these accuracy issues. Detailed analysis into the sources of innaccuracy led to the conclusion that in certain cases, double precision simulations are necesscary for accurate material characterization and mesh regularization.

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Mechanical Metals Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive Extrusion Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Research Papers


A Simplified Approach for Strain-Rate Dependent Hyperelastic Materials with Damage

"Simulation of rubber-like materials is usually based on hyperelasticity. If strain-rate dependency has to be considered viscous dampers are added to the rheological model. A disadvantage of such a description is timeconsuming parameter identification associated with the damping constants. In this paper, a tabulated formulation is presented which allows fast generation of input data based on uniaxial static and dynamic tensile tests at different strain rates. Unloading, i.e. forming of a hysteresis, can also be modeled easily based on a damage formulation. We show the theoretical background and algorithmic setup of our model which has been implemented in the explicit solver LS-DYNA [1]-[3]. Apart from purely numerical examples, the validation of a soft and a hard rubber under loading and subsequent unloading at different strain rates is shown."

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Mechanical Rubbers Hyperelastic Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


A semi-analytical model for polymers subjected to high strain rates

"Reliable prediction of the behaviour of structures made from polymers is a topic under considerable investigation in engineering practice. Especially, if the structure is subjected to dynamic loading, constitutive models considering the mechanical behaviour properly are still not available in commercial finite element codes. First, we give an overview of material laws for thermoplastics and show how the behaviour can be characterized and approximated by using visco-elasticity and metal plasticity, respectively. Experimental work is presented to point out important phenomena like necking, strain rate dependency, unloading behaviour and damage. A constitutive model including the experimental findings is derived. In particular, different yield surfaces in compression and tension and strain rate dependent failure, the latter with damage induced erosion, need to be taken into account. With the present formulation, standard verification tests can be simulated successfully. Also, an elastic damage model is used to approximate the unloading behaviour of thermoplastics adequately."

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Mechanical Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


The Influence of Permanent Volumetric Deformation on the Reduction of the Load Bearing Capability of Plastic Components

"During the past years polymer materials have gained enormous importance in the automotive industry. Especially their application for interior parts to help in passenger safety load cases and their use for bumper fascias in pedestrian safety load cases have driven the demand for much more realistic finite element simulations. For such applications the material model 187 (i.e. MAT_SAMP-1) in LS-DYNA® has been developed. In the present paper the authors show how the parameters for the rather general model may be adjusted to allow for the simulation of crazing effects during plastic loading. Crazing is usually understood as inelastic deformation that exhibits permanent volumetric deformations. Hence a material model that is intended to be applied for polymer components that show crazing effects during the experimental study, should be capable to produce the correct volumetric strains during the respective finite element simulation. The paper discusses the real world effect of crazing, the ideas to capture these effect in a numerical model and exemplifies the theoretical ideas with a real world structural component finite element model."

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Advances in the Measurement and Modeling of Plastics for Impact Simulations

High strain-rate properties have many applications in the simulation of automotive crash and product drop testing. These properties are difficult to measure. Previously, we described a novel inferential technique for the measurement of the properties of polycarbonate. In this paper, we demonstrate that the technique appears to work for a variety of polymers. We also show that plastics exhibit different kinds of high-strain rate behaviors

Plastics LS-DYNA


Comparison of Crash Models for Ductile Plastics

There is interest in quantifying the accuracy of different material models being used in LS-DYNA today for the modeling of plastics. In our study, we characterize two ductile, yet different materials, ABS and polypropylene for rate dependent tensile properties and use the data to develop material parameters for the material models commonly used for plastics: MAT_024 and its variants, MAT_089 and MAT_187. We then perform a falling dart impact test which produces a complex multi-axial stress state and simulate this experiment using LS-DYNA. For each material model we are able to compare simulation to actual experiment thereby obtaining a measure of fidelity of the simulation to reality. In this way, we can assess the benefits of using a particular material model for plastics simulation.

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


A Simplified Approach to the Simulation of Rubber-like Materials under Dynamic Loading

"The simulation of rubber materials is becoming increasingly important in automotive crashworthiness simulations. Although highly sophisticated material laws are available in LS-DYNA to model rubber parts, the determination of material properties can be non-trivial and time consuming. In many applications, the rubber component is mainly loaded uniaxially at rather high strain rates. In this paper a simplified material model for rubber is presented allowing for a fast generation of input data based on uniaxial static and dynamic test data."

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Mechanical Rubbers Hyperelastic Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


Challenges in the Modeling of Plastics in Computer Simulation

Finite-element analysis and injection-molding simulation are two technologies that are seeing widespread use today in the design of plastic components. Limitations exist in our ability to mathematically describe the complexity of polymer behavior to these software packages. Material models commonly used in finite-element analysis were not designed for plastics, making it difficult to correctly describe non-linear behavior and plasticity of these complex materials. Time-based viscoelastic phenomena further complicate analysis. Dealing with fiber fillers brings yet another layer of complexity. It is vital to the plastics engineer to comprehend these gaps in order to make good design decisions. Approaches to understanding and dealing with these challenges, including practical strategies for everyday use, will be discussed.

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Mechanical Plastics Blow Molding Extrusion Injection Molding Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis Thermoforming LS-DYNA Abaqus DIGIMAT Presentations


Software for Creating LS-DYNA Material Model Parameters from Test Data 

LS-DYNA software contains a wealth of material models that allow for the simulation of transient phenomena. The Matereality® CAE Modeler is a generalized pre-processor software used to convert material property data into material parameters for different material models used in CAE. In a continuation of previously presented work, we discuss the extension of the CAE Modeler software to commonly used material models beyond MAT_024. Software enhancements include advanced point picking to perform extrapolations beyond the tested data, as well as the ability to fine-tune the material models while scrutinizing the trends shown in the underlying raw data. Advanced modeling features include the ability to tune the rate dependency as well as the initial response. Additional material models that are quite complex and difficult to calibrate are supported, including those for hyperelastic and viscoelastic behavior. As before, the written material cards are directly readable into the LS-DYNA software, but now they can also be stored and catalogued in a material card library for later reuse.

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Plastics Rubbers Foams Metals High Speed Testing Injection Molding Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Composites Presentations


Software for Creating and Managing Material Specifications 

Material specifications define properties for incoming materials to meet required criteria. We present software that manages creation of material specifications, input of properties and material composition; and provides a way to evaluate qualification per specification. While it is designed for OEM/Tier n environments, it is also applicable for materials suppliers.

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Automotive Moldflow LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS Moldex3D DIGIMAT SIGMASOFT SolidWorks ADINA ANSYS FIDAP B-Sim Cadmould HyperXtrude MSC.DYTRAN MSC.MARC MSC.NASTRAN Multi-CAE Molding NX Nastran PAM-CRASH PAM-FORM PlanetsX Polycad POLYFLOW Blow Molding POLYFLOW Extrusion POLYFLOW Thermoforming PolyXtrue RADIOSS Simpoe-Mold T-Sim VEL VISI Flow WinTXS Presentations


Comments on the Testing and Management of Plastics Material Data 

Plastics appeared as design materials of choice about 30 years ago. They brought with them huge design challenges because their multi-variable, non-linear nature was not well understood by engineers trained to work in a linear elastic world. We outline a 20 year journey accompanying our customers in their efforts to understand and simulate these remarkable materials to produce the highly reliable plastic products of today. We discuss challenges related to processes such as injection molding vs. blow-molding; coping with filled plastics; the difficulties of modeling polymers for crash applications. We include our latest findings related to volumetric yield in polymers and its relationship to failure. We describe the material database technology that was created to store this kind of multi-variable data and the analytical tools created to help the CAE engineer understand and use plastics material data.

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Plastics Automotive Blow Molding High Speed Testing Injection Molding Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis Moldflow LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS Moldex3D DIGIMAT Multi-CAE Crash Multi-CAE Molding Multi-CAE Structural PAM-CRASH Presentations


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '14, Volume 20.2

Material Testing and Data Management to be Showcased at Technical Meetings Globally. DatapointLabs Expands Composite Testing to Meet Industry Demand. Supporting Innovation and Ingenuity in Our Local Schools

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Plastics Electonics/Electrical LS-DYNA Newsletters


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '13, Volume 19.3

Digital Image Correlation Techniques Enhance Composite Testing Capability. Store and Manage Properties of Structured Composites with a Matereality® Database.

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Automotive LS-DYNA Abaqus Composites Newsletters Validation


Applying Digital Image Correlation Methods to SAMP-1 Characterization 

SAMP-1 is a complex material model designed to capture non-Mises yield and localization behavior in plastics. To perform well, it is highly dependent on accurate post-yield material data. A number of assumptions and approximations are currently used to translate measured stress-strain data into the material parameters related to these inputs. In this paper, we look at the use of direct localized strain measurements using digital image correlation (DIC) as a way to more directly extract the required data needed for SAMP-1.

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Plastics Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Composites Research Papers


Testing for Crash & Safety Simulation

The testing of materials for use in crash and safety simulations and the conversion of test data into material models is a process that is not well standardized in the industry. Consequently, CAE users face uncertainty and risk in this process that can have a negative impact on simulation quality. In this workshop, we present approaches currently used in the US for the gathering of high quality test data plus the acclaimed Matereality CAE Modeler software that is used to transform high strain-rate data into crash material cards.

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Automotive High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS DIGIMAT SIGMASOFT NX Nastran PAM-CRASH RADIOSS Presentations


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '10, Volume 16.2

Global Expansion Update. LS-DYNA Support Update. New TestPaks Partner. Photo Documentation of Testing.

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LS-DYNA DIGIMAT Newsletters


Behavior-based Material Model Selection and Calibration of Plastics for Crash Simulation 

Many material models are available for crash simulation. However, common models are not designed for plastics. We present best practices developed for adapting common models to plastics, as well as best testing protocols to generate clean, accurate rate-dependent data. In addition, we present a streamlined process to convert raw data to LS-DYNA material cards, and harmonized material datasets that allow the same raw data to be used for other crash and rate-dependent analysis software.

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Plastics Automotive High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS PAM-CRASH RADIOSS Presentations


A Robust Methodology to Calibrate Crash Material Models for Polymers

High strain rate material modelling of polymers for use in crash and drop testing has been plagued by a number of problems. These include poor quality and noisy data, material models unsuited to polymer behaviour and unclear material model calibration guidelines. The modelling of polymers is thus a risky proposition with a highly variable success rate. In previous work, we tackled each of the above problems individually. In this paper, we summarize and then proceed to present a material modelling strategy that can be applied for a wide variety of polymers.

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Mechanical Plastics Aerospace and Defense Automotive Consumer Products Material Supplier Industrial Goods Packaging Home Appliances High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS MSC.DYTRAN PAM-CRASH RADIOSS Research Papers


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '09, Volume 15.1

DatapointLabs Featured in Technical Conferences.

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Plastics Rubbers Foams Hyperelastic High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Abaqus Newsletters


Selecting Material Models for the Simulation of Foams 

We seek to lay down a framework to help us understand the different behavioral classes of foams. Following a methodology that we previously applied to plastics, we will then attempt to propose the right LS-DYNA material models that best capture these behaviours. Guidelines for model selection will be presented as well as best practices for characterization. Limitations of existing material models will be discussed.

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Foams Automotive Consumer Products Material Supplier Packaging Home Appliances High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS MSC.DYTRAN Research Papers


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '09, Volume 14.6

New Website: Your Lab at Your Computer. New Paper Available.

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Rate Dependency Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Abaqus Newsletters


Simulating Plastics in Drop and Crash Tests 

If you want a crash simulation involving plastics to yield useful results, it is important to model the material behavior appropriately. The high strain rates have a significant effect on the properties, and failure can be ductile or brittle in nature, depending on a number of factors.

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Plastics Aerospace and Defense Automotive Biomedical Consumer Products Material Supplier Toys/Sporting Goods Industrial Goods Packaging High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS MSC.DYTRAN PAM-CRASH RADIOSS Research Papers


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '08, Volume 14.2

New Tests and TestPaks. New Presentations On-line.

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LS-DYNA RADIOSS VISI Flow Newsletters Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '08, Volume 14.1

New TestPaks. New Test Capabilities.

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Moldflow LS-DYNA Abaqus PAM-FORM Newsletters


Material Modeling Strategies for Crash and Drop Test Simulation

Many LS-DYNA models are used for plastics crash simulation. However, common models are not designed for plastics. We present best practices developed for adapting common models to plastics, as well as best testing protocols to generate clean, accurate rate-dependent data.

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Metals Aerospace and Defense Automotive Consumer Products Material Supplier Industrial Goods Packaging High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS MSC.DYTRAN PAM-CRASH Presentations


Methodology for Selection of Material Models for Plastics Impact Simulation 

The volume of plastics that are subjected to impact simulation has grown rapidly. In a previous paper, we discussed why different material models are needed to describe the highly varied behavior exhibited by these materials. In this paper, we cover the subject in more detail, exploring in depth, the nuances of commonly used LS-DYNA material models for plastics, covering important exceptions and criteria related to their use.

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Plastics Aerospace and Defense Automotive Consumer Products Material Supplier Industrial Goods Packaging Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS PAM-CRASH RADIOSS Research Papers


Methodology for Selection of Material Models for Plastics Impact Simulation

The volume of plastics that are subjected to impact simulation has grown rapidly. In a previous paper, we discussed why different material models are needed to describe the highly varied behavior exhibited by these materials. In this paper, we cover the subject in more detail, exploring in depth, the nuances of commonly used LS-DYNA material models for plastics, covering important exceptions and criteria related to their use.

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Plastics High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers


SAMP-1: A Semi-Analytical Model for the Simulation of Polymers

The numerical simulation of structural parts made from plastics is becoming increasingly important nowadays. The fact that almost any structural requirement can be combined in a lightweight, durable and cost effective structure is the driving force behind its widespread application. More and more structural relevant parts are being constructed and manufactured from plastics. This on the other hand drives the demand for reliable and robust methods to design these parts and to predict their structural behaviour. the key ingredients that need to be available are verified, calibrated and validated constitutive models for any family of plastic material. This holds not only true for crashworthiness applications but for any other application field.

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Plastics Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA


A Novel Technique to Measure Tensile Properties of Plastics at High Strain Rates

High strain-rate properties have many applications in the simulation of automotive crash and product drop testing. These properties are difficult to measure. These difficulties result from inaccuracies in extensometry at high strain rates due to extensometer slippage and background noise due to the sudden increase in stress at the start of the test. To eliminate these inaccuracies we use an inferential technique that correlates strain to extension at low strain rates and show that this can be extended to measure strain at higher strain rates

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Aerospace and Defense Automotive Consumer Products Material Supplier Toys/Sporting Goods Packaging Home Appliances High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS MSC.DYTRAN PAM-CRASH Research Papers


High Speed Stress Strain Material Properties as Inputs for the Simulation of Impact Situations

With the recent changes in the crashworthiness requirements for US automobiles for improved safety, design engineers are being challenged to design interior trim systems comprised of polymeric materials to meet these new impact requirements. Impact analysis programs are being used increasingly by designers to gain an insight into the final part performance during the design stage. Material models play a crucial role in these design simulations by representing the response of the material to an applied stimulus. In this work, we seek to develop novel test methods to generate high speed stress-strain properties of plastics, which can be used as input to structural analysis programs...

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Plastics Metals Aerospace and Defense Material Supplier Toys/Sporting Goods Packaging Home Appliances High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis Thermoforming LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS MSC.DYTRAN PAM-CRASH Research Papers