Plastic Flow’s extrusion die design software, polyXtrue, is based upon a unique and proprietary theory that simulates flow of polymers taking into account not only the shear viscosity, but also the elongational viscosity of the polymer. To simulate a multilayer flow during coextrusion, polyXtrue uses a newly developed algorithm, called Mesh Partitioning Technique, which allows coextrusion simulation without changing the finite element mesh as the shape of different polymer layers change during simulation. Thereby, allowing simulation of the flow even in highly complex coextrusion dies.

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June 09, 2015 | by PolyXtrue | views 1378

Bi-layer flow in a profile coextrusion die was
simulated. Prediction of post-die changes in extrudate
profile was included in the simulation. Mesh partitioning
technique was used to allow the coextrusion simulation
without modifying the finite element mesh in the profile
die. Effect of polymer viscosities on the change in profile
shape after the polymers leave the die is analyzed. It is
found that a difference in the viscosities of the coextruded
polymers can lead to a highly non-uniform velocity
distribution at die exit. Accordingly, post-die changes in
extrudate shape were found to be widely different when
the polymers in the two coextruded layers were changed.

...read full post

Rheology
Plastics
Extrusion
PolyXtrue
Research Papers

June 09, 2015 | by PolyXtrue | views 1463

Flow in a flat die with coat hanger type of manifold is
simulated allowing slip on die walls. Flow in the same die
was also simulated by enforcing the no-slip condition on
the walls. With slip on the die walls, the pressure drop,
shear rate, stress, as well as temperature increase in the
die, all were smaller than the corresponding values with
no-slip condition on the walls. For the case with slip on
die walls, since the shear rate is smaller, the elongation
rate in the die is found to be the dominant fraction of the
total strain rate. Due to its high computational efficiency,
the software employed in this work can be effectively
used to design extrusion dies for fluids exhibiting slip on
die walls.

...read full post

Rheology
Plastics
Extrusion
PolyXtrue
Research Papers

June 09, 2015 | by PolyXtrue | views 1285

The flow in a coat-hanger die is simulated using the axisymmetric and planar elongational viscosities of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resin. Elongational viscosity is found to affect the velocity distribution at the die exit. Also, the predicted pressure drop in the die changed significantly when the effect of elongational viscosity was included in the simulation. However, elongational viscosity had only a minor effect on the temperature distribution in the die. Predicted pressure drop is compared with the corresponding experimental data.

...read full post

Rheology
Plastics
Extrusion
PolyXtrue
Research Papers

June 09, 2015 | by PolyXtrue | views 1472

For two low-density polyethylenes and two polystyrenes,
axisymmetric and planar elongational viscosities
are estimated using entrance loss data from capillary
and slit rheometers, respectively. The elongational viscosity
is estimated by optimizing the values of various
parameters in the Sarkar–Gupta elongational viscosity
model such that the entrance loss predicted by a finite
element simulation agrees with the corresponding experimental
data. The predicted entrance loss is in good
agreement with the experimental data at high flow
rates. The difference in the experimental and predicted
entrance loss at lower flow rates might have been
caused by large error in the experimental data in this
range.

...read full post

Rheology
Plastics
Extrusion
PolyXtrue
Research Papers

June 09, 2015 | by PolyXtrue | views 1412

The elongational viscosity model proposed by Sarkar and Gupta (Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2001, 20, 1473), along with the Carreau model for shear viscosity is used for a finite element simulation of the flow in a capillary rheometer. The entrance pressure loss predicted by the finite element flow simulation is matched with the corresponding experimental data to predict the parameters in the elongational viscosity model. To improve the computational efficiency, various elongational viscosity parameters are optimized individually. Estimated elongational viscosity for a Low Density Polyethylene (DOW 132i) is reported for two different temperatures.

...read full post

Rheology
Plastics
Extrusion
PolyXtrue
Research Papers

June 09, 2015 | by PolyXtrue | views 1378

A new elongational viscosity model along with the
Carreau-Yasuda model for shear viscosity is used for a
finite element simulation of the flow in a capillary
rheometer. The entrance pressure loss predicted by the
finite element flow simulation is matched with the
corresponding experimental data to predict the parameters
in the new elongational viscosity model.

...read full post

Rheology
Plastics
Extrusion
Injection Molding
PolyXtrue
Research Papers

June 09, 2015 | by PolyXtrue | views 1356

A new elongational viscosity model along with the Carreau-Yasuda model for shear viscosity is
used for a finite element simulation of the flow in a capillary rheometer die. The entrance pressure loss
predicted by the finite element flow simulation is matched with the corresponding experimental data to
predict the parameters in the new elongational viscosity model. For two different polymers, the
predicted elongational viscosity is compared with the corresponding predictions from Cogswell’s
analysis and K-BKZ model.

...read full post

Rheology
Plastics
Extrusion
PolyXtrue
Research Papers

**"Effect of Polymer Viscosity on Post-Die Extrudate Shape Change in Coextruded Profiles"**

Bi-layer flow in a profile coextrusion die was
simulated. Prediction of post-die changes in extrudate
profile was included in the simulation. Mesh partitioning
technique was used to allow the coextrusion simulation
without modifying the finite element mesh in the profile
die. Effect of polymer viscosities on the change in profile
shape after the polymers leave the die is analyzed. It is
found that a difference in the viscosities of the coextruded
polymers can lead to a highly non-uniform velocity
distribution at die exit. Accordingly, post-die changes in
extrudate shape were found to be widely different when
the polymers in the two coextruded layers were changed.
...click to view

**"Effect of Wall Slip on the Flow in a Flat Die for Sheet Extrusion"**

Flow in a flat die with coat hanger type of manifold is
simulated allowing slip on die walls. Flow in the same die
was also simulated by enforcing the no-slip condition on
the walls. With slip on the die walls, the pressure drop,
shear rate, stress, as well as temperature increase in the
die, all were smaller than the corresponding values with
no-slip condition on the walls. For the case with slip on
die walls, since the shear rate is smaller, the elongation
rate in the die is found to be the dominant fraction of the
total strain rate. Due to its high computational efficiency,
the software employed in this work can be effectively
used to design extrusion dies for fluids exhibiting slip on
die walls.
...click to view

**"Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Elongational Viscosity effects in a Coat-Hanger Die"**

The flow in a coat-hanger die is simulated using the axisymmetric and planar elongational viscosities of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resin. Elongational viscosity is found to affect the velocity distribution at the die exit. Also, the predicted pressure drop in the die changed significantly when the effect of elongational viscosity was included in the simulation. However, elongational viscosity had only a minor effect on the temperature distribution in the die. Predicted pressure drop is compared with the corresponding experimental data. ...click to view

**"Elongational Viscosity of LDPEs and Polystyrenes using Entrance Loss Data"**

For two low-density polyethylenes and two polystyrenes,
axisymmetric and planar elongational viscosities
are estimated using entrance loss data from capillary
and slit rheometers, respectively. The elongational viscosity
is estimated by optimizing the values of various
parameters in the Sarkar–Gupta elongational viscosity
model such that the entrance loss predicted by a finite
element simulation agrees with the corresponding experimental
data. The predicted entrance loss is in good
agreement with the experimental data at high flow
rates. The difference in the experimental and predicted
entrance loss at lower flow rates might have been
caused by large error in the experimental data in this
range. ...click to view

**"Estimation of Elongational Viscosity of Polymers From Entrance Loss data Using Individual parameter Optimization"**

The elongational viscosity model proposed by Sarkar and Gupta (Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2001, 20, 1473), along with the Carreau model for shear viscosity is used for a finite element simulation of the flow in a capillary rheometer. The entrance pressure loss predicted by the finite element flow simulation is matched with the corresponding experimental data to predict the parameters in the elongational viscosity model. To improve the computational efficiency, various elongational viscosity parameters are optimized individually. Estimated elongational viscosity for a Low Density Polyethylene (DOW 132i) is reported for two different temperatures. ...click to view

**"Estimation of Elongational Viscosity of Polymers for Accurate Prediction of Juncture Losses in Injection Molding"**

A new elongational viscosity model along with the
Carreau-Yasuda model for shear viscosity is used for a
finite element simulation of the flow in a capillary
rheometer. The entrance pressure loss predicted by the
finite element flow simulation is matched with the
corresponding experimental data to predict the parameters
in the new elongational viscosity model. ...click to view

**"Estimation of Elongational Viscosity Using Entrance Flow Simulation"**

A new elongational viscosity model along with the Carreau-Yasuda model for shear viscosity is
used for a finite element simulation of the flow in a capillary rheometer die. The entrance pressure loss
predicted by the finite element flow simulation is matched with the corresponding experimental data to
predict the parameters in the new elongational viscosity model. For two different polymers, the
predicted elongational viscosity is compared with the corresponding predictions from Cogswell’s
analysis and K-BKZ model. ...click to view