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Posts in Category: 'Rate Dependency'

Datapoint Newsletter: Winter '17, Volume 23.1

New test capabilities, Matereality v10.2, upcoming presentations full post

Mechanical Plastics Rubbers Hyperelastic Visco-elastic Rate Dependency High Speed Testing Structural Analysis Composites Newsletters Validation

Datapoint Newsletter: Fall '16, Volume 22.4

CAETestBench Validations; Matereality Enterprise Workflows; Latest Publications Available on Knowmats full post

Plastics Rubbers Metals Hyperelastic Plasticity Rate Dependency Automotive Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS RADIOSS Newsletters Validation 3D Printing

Workshop: Testing, Modeling and Validation for Plastics & Rubber Simulation in ANSYS

Plastics exhibit non-linear viscoelastic behavior followed by a combination of deviatoric and volumetric plastic deformation until failure. Capturing these phenomena correctly in simulation presents a challenge because of limitations in commonly used material models. We follow an approach where we outline the general behavioral phenomena, then prescribe material models for handling different phases of plastics deformation. Edge cases will then be covered to complete the picture. Topics to be addressed include: Using elasto-plasticity; When to use hyperelasticity; Brittle polymers – filled plastics; Failure modes to consider; Criteria for survival; Choosing materials; Spatial non-isotropy from injection molding; Importance of residual stress; Visco-elastic and creep effects; Strain-rate effects for drop test and crash simulations; Fitting material data to FEA material models; The use of mid-stage validation as a tool to confirm the quality of simulation before use in real-life applications. full post

Density Rheology Thermal Mechanical Plastics Rubbers Hyperelastic Visco-elastic Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Injection Molding Structural Analysis ANSYS Presentations Validation

Damage Modeling under Impact Loading in Talc-Filled Polypropylene Compounds

Topics covered: Damage in mineral filled polypropylene under impact conditions; damage modeling and parameter identification (prior art, LyondellBasell contributions, debate in the CAE community); experimental and numerical validation; next steps full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive Material Supplier High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Presentations

A Standardized Mechanism to Validate Crash Models for Ductile Plastics

Quantifying simulation accuracy before running crash simulations could be a helpful confidence building measure. This study continues our development of a mechanism to validate material models for plastics used in modeling high-speed impact. Focusing on models for isotropic materials that include options for rate dependency and failure, we explore other models commonly used for ductile plastics including MAT089 and MAT187. full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive Toys/Sporting Goods Packaging High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation

Determination and Use of Material Properties for Finite Element Analysis: Book Review

This book is intended to be a companion to the NAFEMS book, "An Introduction to the Use of Material Models in FE". It informs Finite Element Analysis users of the manner and methodologies by which materials are tested in order to calibrate material models currently implemented in various FEA programs. While the authors seek first to satisfy the basic material models outlined in the companion book, they make important extensions to FEA used in currently active areas including explicit simulation. full post

Mechanical Plastics Rubbers Foams Metals Hyperelastic Visco-elastic Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive Biomedical Building Materials Consumer Products Energy and Petroleum Material Supplier Furniture Industrial Goods CAE Vendor/Supplier Packaging Home Appliances Research Laboratory High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS DIGIMAT SolidWorks MSC.DYTRAN MSC.MARC MSC.NASTRAN NX Nastran PAM-COMFORT PAM-CRASH RADIOSS SIMULIA Book Review

Characterization of Polyolefins for Design Under Impact: from True Stress/ Local Strain Measurements to the F.E. Simulation with LS-Dyna Mat. SAMP-1

Optical strain measurement for the mechanical characterization of polymers, and in particular of polyolefins, is becoming a common practice to determine the parameters to be used in a finite element analysis of crash problems. This experimental technique allows measuring the strain locally on the specimen, so that it is particularly suitable when the deformation is localized, as in the case of polymers: therefore a more accurate description of the behaviour of the material is obtained. By so doing, it is possible to describe the material constitutive law in terms of the true, local strain and of the true stress. As these data are those needed by the most complete material models developed for impact calculation, it is clear that this technique is particularly suitable for coupling with the most advanced material models currently available in the F.E. codes, as for instance with Mat 187 (SAMP-1) of LS-Dyna. The local measurement of the strain can also be used for evaluating the volume strain, whose evolution with the increasing strain shows that for PP-based material the deformation is not isochoric in most the cases. The observed increase in the material volume reflects the fact that voids generate and coalesce within the material, possibly resulting in fracture. The measure of the volume strain, computed as the trace of the strain tensor, is here used for determining the damage function utilized by the damage model implemented in SAMP-1. The effective stress is here estimated as the stress which would be measured if the deformation was isochoric, and it can be assessed on the basis of the measurement of the longitudinal local strain only. Corresponding to each value of longitudinal strain, the volume strain is then used to calculate the ratio between the effective and the true stress. Adopting this procedure, the damage function is thus determined without the needs of repeated loading-unloading tests used to derive the damage parameter from the unloading slope, which is furthermore difficult to be measured. As an application, the results of the numerical reproduction of a benchmark test, consisting in a drop test on a polypropylene box, are presented and discussed full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Simulating anisotropy with Ls-dyna in glass-reinforced, polypropylene-based components

Glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GF PP) materials are increasingly being used by customers to replace metal and engineering polymers in structural automotive applications. Like all glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, GF PP products can show anisotropy caused by fiber orientation that is induced by the injection process. Taking into account fiber orientation in the simulations enables designers to improve the accuracy of the analyses. This can help prevent arbitrary choices and assumptions when setting material parameters, which become mandatory when an isotropic material law is used. The method proposed in this paper takes advantage of the availability within Ls-dyna of an anisotropic material law (MAT_103), which allows simplified modeling to address critical issues. This law was not developed to address the problem discussed here. Therefore, this paper illustrates a simplified approach. The presence of glass reinforced fibers is taken into account by running a mold-filling analysis, and then transferring the material flow orientation in to the structural simulation as a material angle. The dependence of the material failure strain on the material orientation can be also easily modeled through a user subroutine. Finally, the approach only requires simple material data based on basic tensile tests; the material law parameters are then identified through optimization techniques. Although this approach is based on some simplifying assumptions, its application is quick and can help the designer obtain more accurate results with respect to the traditional isotropic approach. A selection of validation tests is then proposed that show reliable predictions using limited additional computational effort. full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '15, Volume 21.3

Material Model Validation, New Knowledge Hub full post

Rate Dependency LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS Newsletters Validation

Caratterizzazione di materiali plastici: misure locali di deformazione per la simulazione ad elementi finiti di problemi di impatto

Questo articolo si propone di illustrare l’importanza dell’utilizzo di metodi per la misura delle proprietà locali del materiale per determinarne la legge di comportamento. Vengono di seguito presentati alcuni esempi che evidenziano quanto più accurate e realistiche siano le simulazioni numeriche di test di trazione ad alta velocità su provini di poliolefine, quando vengano utilizzate proprietà dei materiali rilevate con misure locali, utilizzando metodi ottici. La disponibilità di misure locali e più accurate evidenzia come sia necessario che nei codici di calcolo commerciali vengano implementate delle leggi di materiale più sofisticate di quelle disponibili attualmente, che sono state per lo più originariamente sviluppate per materiali metallici, e dunque non riescono sempre a predire correttamente il comportamento dei componenti in materiali polimerici. full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Enhanced Failure Prediction in Sheet Metal Forming Simulations through Coupling of LS-DYNA and Algorithm Crach

"In sheet-metal-forming the forming limit curve (FLC) is used for ductile sheets to predict fracture in deep drawing. However the use of the FLC is limited to linear strain paths. The initial FLC cannot be used in a complex nonlinear strain history of a deep drawing process or a successive stamp and crash process including a significant change in strain rate. The CRACH software has been developed to predict the forming limit of sheets for nonlinear strain paths [1]. It has been validated to predict instability for bilinear strain paths with static loading in the first path and dynamic loading in the second path for mild steels [2]. As the postprocessing of strain paths from single finite elements in CRACH is not economic for industrial applications MATFEM initiated a project to couple CRACH directly with FEM-Code LS-DYNA using a userdefined material model. This allows a prediction of possible failure during the simulation for all elements with respect to their complete strain history. A special strategy has been developed to include CRACH without extensive increase in total CPU time. The developed interface to LS-DYNA allows also the implementation of other failure criteria demanding the history of deformation like for example a tensorial fracture criterion. In order to test the reliability of the calculated safety factor experimental tests for bilinear strain paths have been simulated [2]. In this case the experimental and numerical investigations have been made on two-stage forming processes (static in the 1st stage and both static/dynamic in the 2nd stage) . The static-static case should simulate a stamping process with bilinear strain path. The static-dynamic case should simulate a successive stamp and crash process. The simulation of a complex deep drawing problem including areas with significantly nonlinear strain paths has been simulated with LS-DYNA/CRACH-coupling. It can be shown that the prediction of CRACH can differ significantely from a “standard” prediction based on the initial FLC. The coupling of LS-DYNA and CRACH showed the potential to predict possible fracture in deep drawing and crash loading at an early design stage and allowed to optimise geometry and material quality to significantly reduce later problems in real components." full post

Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

A Systematic Approach to Model Metals, Compact Polymers and Structural Foams in Crash Simulations with a Modular User Material

"Today the automotive industry is faced with the demand to build light fuel-efficient vehicles while optimizing its crashworthiness and stiffness. A wide variety of new metallic and polymeric materials have been introduced to account for these increased requirements. Numerical analysis can significantly support this process if the analysis is really predictive. Within the numerical model a correct characterization of the material behaviour – including elasto-viscoplastic behaviour and failure - is substantial. The particular behaviour of each material group must be covered by the material model. The user material model MF GenYld+CrachFEM allows for a modular combination of phenomenological models (yield locus, strain hardening, damage evolution, criteria for fracture initiation) to give an adequate representation of technical materials. This material model can be linked to LS-DYNA when using the explicit-dynamic time integration scheme. This paper gives an overview on the material characterization of ultra high strength steels (with focus on failure prediction), non-reinforced polymers (with focus on anisotropic hardening of polymers), and structural foams (with focus on compressibility and stress dependent damage evolution) with respect to crash simulation. It will be shown that a comprehensive material model - including damage and failure behaviour - enables a predictive simulation without iterative calibration of material parameters. A testing programme has been done for each material group in order to allow a fitting of the parameters of the material model first. In a second step different component tests have been carried out, which were part of a systematic procedure to validate the appropriate predictions of the crash behaviour with LS-Dyna and user material MF_GenYld+CrachFEM for each material group." full post

Mechanical Plastics Foams Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Improved Plasticity and Failure models for Extruded MgProfiles in Crash Simulations

"The Crash Simulation of Magnesium Structures with Finite Element Methods demands the use of suitable material and failure models. An associated plasticity model describing the complex asymmetric yield behaviour in tension and compression of Mg extrusions has been developed during the InMaK-project (Innovative Magnesium Compound Structures for Automobile Frames) supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Differences to the material model 124 in LS-DYNA are exposed. In order to describe the failure behaviour of Mg extrusions under multiaxial loading in FEM crash simulation this constitutive model has been combined with a fracture model for ductile and shear fracture. The fracture model has been added to the user defined constitutive magnesium model in LS-DYNA. The experimental investigations carried out on model components are compared with numerical derived results. Experimental methods for fracture parameter evaluation are shown and general aspects of metal failure due to fracture as well as different modelling techniques are discussed." full post

Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Development, implementation and Validation of 3-D Failure Model for Aluminium 2024 for High Speed Impact Applications

FAA William J Huges Technical Center (NJ) conducts a research project to simulate failure in aeroengines and fuselages, main purpose is blade-out containment studies. This involved the implementation in LS-DYNA of a tabulated generalisation of the Johnson-Cook material law with regularisation to accommodate simulation of ductile materials. full post

Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Presentations Validation

A Material Model for Transversely Anisotropic Crushable Foams in LS-DYNA

"Recently new materials were introduced to enhance different aspects of automotive safety while minimizing the weight added to the vehicle. Such foams are no longer isotropic but typically show a preferred strong direction due to their manufacturing process. Different stress/ strain curves are obtained from material testing in different directions. A new material model was added to the LS-DYNA code in order to allow a correct numerical simulation of such materials. Ease-of-use was a primary concern in the development of this user-subroutine: we required stress/ strain curves from material testing to be directly usable as input parameters for the numerical model without conversion. The user-subroutine is implemented as MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM, Mat law 142 in LS-DYNA Version 960-1106. In this paper we summarize the background of the material law and illustrate some applications in the field of interior head-impact. The obvious advantage of incorporating such detail in the simulation lies in the numerical assessment of impacts that are slightly offset with respect to the foam’s primary strength direction." full post

Mechanical Foams Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Development of Material Input Data for Solid Elements under Crash Loads

"Heavy trucks have large masses and only small deformation zones. Because of this, they are loaded relatively severe in case of a crash. Under those conditions structural response is characterised not only by plastic deformation but also by failure in terms of cracks or fracture. Hence, failure prediction is essential for designing such parts. The following article describes the procedure of generating material models for failure prognosis of solid parts in the Commercial Vehicles Division at Daimler. Sheet metal parts are mostly discretised by shell elements. In this case the state of stress is characterized by hydrostatic pressure over von-Mises effective stress, the so-called triaxiality. For many real-life load cases which can be modeled by thin shells this ratio is between –2/3 and –2/3. Within this range the Gurson material model with the Tvergaard Needlemann addition leads to sufficiently accurate results. Furthermore, the Gurson material model allows considering the effect of element size, which amongst others is important for ductile materials. Most often however, in the case of solid parts the state of stress is more complex, which results in a triaxiality smaller than –1 or larger than 2/3. Gurson material models are usually validated based on shell meshes and tensile tests with flat bar specimen. If applied to solid parts, these models tend to underpredict failure . Thus, for solid parts the GURSON_JC material model is used. The Johnson Cook parameters are derived from an existing Gurson material model. Afterwards the material model is adapted to test results by modifying the load curve giving failure strain against triaxiality. This requires tensile tests" full post

Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation

A Constitutive Formulation for Polymers Subjected to High Strain Rates

"Reliable prediction of the behavior of structures made from polymers is a topic under considerable investigation in engineering practice. Especially, if the structure is subjected to dynamic loading, constitutive models considering the mechanical behavior properly are still not available in commercial finite element codes yet. In our paper, we present a new constitutive law for polymers which recovers important phenomena like necking, crazing, strain rate dependency, unloading behavior and damage. In particular, different yield surfaces in compression and tension and strain rate dependent failure, the latter with damage induced erosion, is taken into account. All relevant parameters are given directly in the input as load curves, i.e. time consuming parameter identification is not necessary. Moreover, the models by von Mises and Drucker-Prager are included in the description as special cases. With the present formulation, standard verification test can be simulated successfully: tensile and compression test, shear test and three point bending tests." full post

Mechanical Plastics Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

A Comparative Review of Damage and Failure Models and a Tabulated Generalization

"Reliable prediction of damage and failure in structural parts is a major challenge posed in engineering mechanics. Although solid material models predicting the deformation behaviour of a structure are increasingly available, reliable prediction of failure remains still open. With SAMP (a Semi-Analytical Model for Polymers), a general and flexible plasticity model is available in LS-DYNA since version 971. Although originally developed for plastics, the plasticity formulation in SAMP is generally applicable to materials that exhibit permanent deformation, such as thermoplastics, crushable foam, soil and metals. In this paper, we present a generalized damage and failure procedure that has been implemented in SAMP and will be available in LS-DYNA soon. In particular, important effects such as triaxiality, strain rate dependency, regularization and non-proportional loading are considered in SAMP. All required physical material parameters are provided in a user-friendly tabulated way. It is shown that our formalism includes many different damage and failure models as special cases, such as the well-known formulations by Johnson-Cook, Chaboche, Lemaitre and Gurson among others. " full post

Mechanical Plastics Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

A Simplified Approach for Strain-Rate Dependent Hyperelastic Materials with Damage

"Simulation of rubber-like materials is usually based on hyperelasticity. If strain-rate dependency has to be considered viscous dampers are added to the rheological model. A disadvantage of such a description is timeconsuming parameter identification associated with the damping constants. In this paper, a tabulated formulation is presented which allows fast generation of input data based on uniaxial static and dynamic tensile tests at different strain rates. Unloading, i.e. forming of a hysteresis, can also be modeled easily based on a damage formulation. We show the theoretical background and algorithmic setup of our model which has been implemented in the explicit solver LS-DYNA [1]-[3]. Apart from purely numerical examples, the validation of a soft and a hard rubber under loading and subsequent unloading at different strain rates is shown." full post

Mechanical Rubbers Hyperelastic Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

A semi-analytical model for polymers subjected to high strain rates

"Reliable prediction of the behaviour of structures made from polymers is a topic under considerable investigation in engineering practice. Especially, if the structure is subjected to dynamic loading, constitutive models considering the mechanical behaviour properly are still not available in commercial finite element codes. First, we give an overview of material laws for thermoplastics and show how the behaviour can be characterized and approximated by using visco-elasticity and metal plasticity, respectively. Experimental work is presented to point out important phenomena like necking, strain rate dependency, unloading behaviour and damage. A constitutive model including the experimental findings is derived. In particular, different yield surfaces in compression and tension and strain rate dependent failure, the latter with damage induced erosion, need to be taken into account. With the present formulation, standard verification tests can be simulated successfully. Also, an elastic damage model is used to approximate the unloading behaviour of thermoplastics adequately." full post

Mechanical Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

The Influence of Permanent Volumetric Deformation on the Reduction of the Load Bearing Capability of Plastic Components

"During the past years polymer materials have gained enormous importance in the automotive industry. Especially their application for interior parts to help in passenger safety load cases and their use for bumper fascias in pedestrian safety load cases have driven the demand for much more realistic finite element simulations. For such applications the material model 187 (i.e. MAT_SAMP-1) in LS-DYNA® has been developed. In the present paper the authors show how the parameters for the rather general model may be adjusted to allow for the simulation of crazing effects during plastic loading. Crazing is usually understood as inelastic deformation that exhibits permanent volumetric deformations. Hence a material model that is intended to be applied for polymer components that show crazing effects during the experimental study, should be capable to produce the correct volumetric strains during the respective finite element simulation. The paper discusses the real world effect of crazing, the ideas to capture these effect in a numerical model and exemplifies the theoretical ideas with a real world structural component finite element model." full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Comparison of Crash Models for Ductile Plastics

There is interest in quantifying the accuracy of different material models being used in LS-DYNA today for the modeling of plastics. In our study, we characterize two ductile, yet different materials, ABS and polypropylene for rate dependent tensile properties and use the data to develop material parameters for the material models commonly used for plastics: MAT_024 and its variants, MAT_089 and MAT_187. We then perform a falling dart impact test which produces a complex multi-axial stress state and simulate this experiment using LS-DYNA. For each material model we are able to compare simulation to actual experiment thereby obtaining a measure of fidelity of the simulation to reality. In this way, we can assess the benefits of using a particular material model for plastics simulation. full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation

A Simplified Approach to the Simulation of Rubber-like Materials under Dynamic Loading

"The simulation of rubber materials is becoming increasingly important in automotive crashworthiness simulations. Although highly sophisticated material laws are available in LS-DYNA to model rubber parts, the determination of material properties can be non-trivial and time consuming. In many applications, the rubber component is mainly loaded uniaxially at rather high strain rates. In this paper a simplified material model for rubber is presented allowing for a fast generation of input data based on uniaxial static and dynamic test data." full post

Mechanical Rubbers Hyperelastic Rate Dependency Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers

Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '09, Volume 14.6

New Website: Your Lab at Your Computer. New Paper Available. full post

Rate Dependency Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Abaqus Newsletters

SAMP-1: A Semi-Analytical Model for the Simulation of Polymers

The numerical simulation of structural parts made from plastics is becoming increasingly important nowadays. The fact that almost any structural requirement can be combined in a lightweight, durable and cost effective structure is the driving force behind its widespread application. More and more structural relevant parts are being constructed and manufactured from plastics. This on the other hand drives the demand for reliable and robust methods to design these parts and to predict their structural behaviour. the key ingredients that need to be available are verified, calibrated and validated constitutive models for any family of plastic material. This holds not only true for crashworthiness applications but for any other application field. full post

Plastics Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA

A Novel Technique to Measure Tensile Properties of Plastics at High Strain Rates

High strain-rate properties have many applications in the simulation of automotive crash and product drop testing. These properties are difficult to measure. These difficulties result from inaccuracies in extensometry at high strain rates due to extensometer slippage and background noise due to the sudden increase in stress at the start of the test. To eliminate these inaccuracies we use an inferential technique that correlates strain to extension at low strain rates and show that this can be extended to measure strain at higher strain rates full post

Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Aerospace and Defense Automotive Consumer Products Material Supplier Toys/Sporting Goods Packaging Home Appliances High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS MSC.DYTRAN PAM-CRASH Research Papers