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Posts in Category: 'Validation'


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '17, Volume 23.2

Matereality v11, upcoming presentations

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Plastics Automotive Moldflow LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS Moldex3D SIGMASOFT SolidWorks RADIOSS Validation ANSA Matereality


Insights into the Simulation of Failure of Ductile Plastics

Performing simulations that can approximate the material behavior of ductile plastics is daunting. Factors such as nonlinear elasticity, inclusion of volumetric and deviatoric behavior, finding and correctly applying the proper material data to create failure criteria are only a few hurdles. A variety of material models exist, each with numerous settings and varied parameter conversion methods. Combined, these cause a great deal of uncertainty for the FEA user. In previous papers, we delved into material models for both LS-DYNA (MAT089, MAT024, and MAT187) and ABAQUS (*ELASTIC, *PLASTIC) using mid-stage validation as a technique to probe solver accuracy. In this presentation, we summarize our findings on the benefits of this combined approach as a general tool to test and tune simulations for greater reliability.

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Mechanical Plastics Automotive High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis Multi-CAE Crash Presentations Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Winter '17, Volume 23.1

New test capabilities, Matereality v10.2, upcoming presentations

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Mechanical Plastics Rubbers Hyperelastic Visco-elastic Rate Dependency High Speed Testing Structural Analysis Composites Newsletters Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Fall '16, Volume 22.4

CAETestBench Validations; Matereality Enterprise Workflows; Latest Publications Available on Knowmats

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Plastics Rubbers Metals Hyperelastic Plasticity Rate Dependency Automotive Nonlinear Material Models LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS RADIOSS Newsletters Validation 3D Printing


Workshop: Testing, Modeling and Validation for Plastics & Rubber Simulation in ANSYS

Plastics exhibit non-linear viscoelastic behavior followed by a combination of deviatoric and volumetric plastic deformation until failure. Capturing these phenomena correctly in simulation presents a challenge because of limitations in commonly used material models. We follow an approach where we outline the general behavioral phenomena, then prescribe material models for handling different phases of plastics deformation. Edge cases will then be covered to complete the picture. Topics to be addressed include: Using elasto-plasticity; When to use hyperelasticity; Brittle polymers – filled plastics; Failure modes to consider; Criteria for survival; Choosing materials; Spatial non-isotropy from injection molding; Importance of residual stress; Visco-elastic and creep effects; Strain-rate effects for drop test and crash simulations; Fitting material data to FEA material models; The use of mid-stage validation as a tool to confirm the quality of simulation before use in real-life applications.

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Density Rheology Thermal Mechanical Plastics Rubbers Hyperelastic Visco-elastic Plasticity Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Injection Molding Structural Analysis ANSYS Presentations Validation


A Mechanism for the Validation of Hyperelastic Materials in ANSYS

Hyperelastic material models are complex in nature requiring stress-strain properties in uniaxial, biaxial and shear modes. The data need to be self-consistent in order to fit the commonly used material models. Choosing models and fitting this data to these equations adds additional uncertainty to the process. We present a validation mechanism where, using of a standard validation experiment one can compare results from a simulation and a physical test to obtain a quantified measure of simulation quality. Validated models can be used with greater confidence in the design of real-life components.

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Mechanical Hyperelastic Structural Analysis ANSYS Papers Presentations Validation


Using Mid-stage Validation to Increase Confidence in Simulation of TPOs

Finite element analysis of plastics contains assumptions and uncertainties that can affect simulation accuracy. It is useful to quantify these effects prior to using simulation for real-life applications. A mid-stage validation uses a controlled physical test on a standardized part to compare results from simulation to physical experiment. These validations do not use real-life parts but carefully designed geometries that probe the accuracy of the simulation; the geometries themselves can be tested with boundary conditions that can be simulated correctly. In one study, a quasi-static three-point bending experiment of a standardized parallel ribbed plate is performed and simulated, using Abaqus. A comparison of the strain fields resulting from the complex stress state on the face of the ribs obtained by digital image correlation (DIC) vs. simulation is used to quantify the simulation's fidelity. In a second study, a dynamic dart impact experiment is validated using LS-Dyna probing the multi-axial deformation of a polypropylene until failure.

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Mechanical Plastics Automotive Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Abaqus Presentations Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '16, Volume 22.3

Support for GISSMO, New Book, SDPD Workflow for Materials

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Mechanical High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis LS-DYNA Newsletters Validation


Progress on the Validation of Simulation for Ductile Polymers

We will focus on our work related to the testing, modeling and validation of simulation for crash and durability applications, including testing techniques, software tools for material parameter conversion, and the use of a mid-stage validation process that uses standardized experiments to check the accuracy of the simulation prior to use in real-life applications. In addition, we present a short introduction to the Knowmats initiative which seeks to collect posts and links to papers from industry experts as a reference for simulation professionals.

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Mechanical Plastics Automotive High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis Multi-CAE Crash Presentations Validation


A Standardized Mechanism to Validate Crash Models for Ductile Plastics

Quantifying simulation accuracy before running crash simulations could be a helpful confidence building measure. This study continues our development of a mechanism to validate material models for plastics used in modeling high-speed impact. Focusing on models for isotropic materials that include options for rate dependency and failure, we explore other models commonly used for ductile plastics including MAT089 and MAT187.

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive Toys/Sporting Goods Packaging High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


A Design-Validation-Production Workflow for Aerospace Additive Manufacturing

With the advent of 3D printing and additive manufacturing, manufacturing designs previously thought difficult to produce can now be generated quickly and efficiently and without tooling. In the aerospace industry, weight is often tied directly to cost and is thus of great importance to any engineering design. Traditionally, the design process often involves much iteration between the designer and the analyst, where the designer submits a design to the analyst, and then the analyst completes his or her analysis and sends recommendations back to the designer. The process is repeated until a valid design meets the analysis criteria. The design is then handed to the manufacturing team which then may have additional constraints or concerns and iterations can continue. Additive manufacturing coupled with topology optimization allows the design and analysis loops and manufacturing iterations to be reduced significantly or even eliminated. The critical step is to ensure that the part will perform as simulated.

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Metals Aerospace and Defense Structural Analysis RADIOSS Research Papers Validation 3D Printing


Using an Intermediate Validation Step to Increase CAE Confidence

Simulations contain assumptions and uncertainties that a designer must evaluate to obtain a measure of accuracy. The assumptions of the product design can be differentiated from the ones for the solver and material model through the use of a mid-stage validation. An open loop validation uses a controlled test on a standardized part to compare results from a simulation to the physical experiment. From the validation, confidence in the material model and solver is gained. In this study, the material properties of a polypropylene are tested to characterize for an *ELASTIC *PLASTIC model in ABAQUS. A validation of a quasi-static three-point bending experiment of a parallel ribbed plate is then performed and simulated. A comparison of the strain fields resulting from the complex stress state on the face of the ribs obtained by digital image correlation (DIC) vs. simulation is used to quantify the simulation's fidelity.

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Plastics Plasticity Automotive Biomedical Consumer Products Material Supplier Toys/Sporting Goods Furniture Packaging Home Appliances Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis Abaqus Research Papers Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '16, Volume 22.2

Focus on Validation, STEM Education, New Test Apparatus, Support for Altair HyperWorks

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Mechanical LS-DYNA Abaqus RADIOSS Newsletters Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Winter '16, Volume 22.1

Control Enterprise Materials Information; ANSA Partnership; New TestPaks for RADIOSS and PolyXtrue; Material Model Validation

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PolyXtrue RADIOSS Newsletters Validation


White Paper: Standardized Validation Brings Confidence to 3D Printing

Finite element analysis contains assumptions and uncertainty from a number of sources, which can impact the fidelity of the simulation. This uncertainty is often left untested up to prototyping stages. DatapointLabs’ CAETestbench Validation service was developed to add a mid-stage validation step to a designer’s workflow, to test these simulations before parts are made, in order to build confidence in an engineer’s model beforehand. This validation step is illustrated in a 3D printing application.

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Validation 3D Printing


From Manufacturing to Design Validation

[We] introduced the topic of injection molding process simulation and the influence of the manufacturing process on structural analysis. The strength and stiffness of a part can be inaccurately represented if the manufacturing process conditions are not properly considered. This results in a different calculation of system natural frequencies or improper estimation of the energy absorbing characteristics. We continue on this topic, extending the scope to advanced technologies available in the Altair Partner Alliance (APA) to help solve the problem of proper design validation with fiber reinforced plastics.

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Mechanical Aerospace and Defense Automotive Injection Molding Structural Analysis Moldex3D DIGIMAT Papers RADIOSS Newsletters Validation


Matereality Webinar: Finite Element Analysis of Additively Manufactured Products

With the growing interest in additive manufacturing in the aerospace industry, there is a desire to accurately simulate the behavior of components made by this process. The layer by layer print process appears to create a morphology that is different from that from conventional manufacturing processes. This can have dramatic impact on the material properties, which in turn, can affect how the material is modeled in simulation. We tested an additively manufactured metal part for mechanical properties and validated the material model used in a linear static simulation.

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Mechanical Aerospace and Defense CAE Vendor/Supplier Structural Analysis RADIOSS Presentations Validation 3D Printing


Numerical simulation of the laser scoring line behavior in airbag deployment

The airbag door system is one of the most delicate aspects in the design phase of a car instrument panel: seamless systems are increasingly used, which combine styling criteria with good functional performances. These systems typically include a tear seam, which may be obtained through laser scoring, to pre-determine the location of the opening during airbag deployment. The design of the scoring line is currently validated through experimental tests on real life exemplars, submitted to airbag deployment, resulting in high development times and relevant costs. This is the main reason which suggests proposing numerical simulation in the design phase, not to substitute actual part homologation by testing but in order to limit the scope and complexity of the experimental campaign, thus reducing the development costs and the time to market. So far, modeling the scoring line has been difficult due to limitations in the testing methods and simulation codes available to the industry. The methodology proposed in this paper takes advantage from the availability of a material law as LS-Dyna SAMP-1, with polymer-dedicated plasticity, damage model and strain-rate dependent failure criteria, which is supported by local strain measurement used for material characterization. The method, here described in detail, is validated on a benchmark test, consisting in the real and virtual testing on a variety of scoring profiles obtained on a polypropylene box submitted to high speed impact test.

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Plasticity Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


Verification vs. Validation in Relation to FEA

I was recently tasked with creating material to explain what Verification and Validation (V&V) are in relation to FEA (finite element analysis).

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Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '15, Volume 21.3

Material Model Validation, New Knowledge Hub

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Rate Dependency LS-DYNA Abaqus ANSYS Newsletters Validation


Creep modelling of Polyolefins using artificial neural networks

Notwithstanding the increasing demand for polymeric materials in an extraordinary variety of applications, the engineers have often only limited tools suitable for the design of parts made of polymers, both in terms of mathematical models and reliable material data, which together constitute the basis for a finite-elements based design. Within this context, creep modelling constitutes a clear example of the needs for a more refined approach. An accurate prediction of the creep behaviour of polymers would definitely lead to a more refined design and thus to a better performance of the polymeric components. However, a limited number of models is available within the f.e. codes, and when the model complexity increases, it becomes sometimes difficult fitting the models parameters to the experimental data. In order to predict the polymer creep behaviour, this paper proposes a solution based on artificial neural networks, where the experimental creep curves are used to determine the parameters of a neural network which is then simply implemented in an Abaqus user subroutine. This allows to avoid the implementation of a complex material law and also the difficulties related to match the experimental data to the model parameters, keeping easily into account the dependence on stress and temperature. After a discussion of the selection of the appropriate network and its parameters, an example of the application of this approach to polyolefins in a simplified test case is presented.

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Mechanical Plastics Automotive Biomedical Structural Analysis Abaqus Research Papers Validation


Development, implementation and Validation of 3-D Failure Model for Aluminium 2024 for High Speed Impact Applications

FAA William J Huges Technical Center (NJ) conducts a research project to simulate failure in aeroengines and fuselages, main purpose is blade-out containment studies. This involved the implementation in LS-DYNA of a tabulated generalisation of the Johnson-Cook material law with regularisation to accommodate simulation of ductile materials.

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Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Presentations Validation


Theoretical Development of an Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Generalized Composite Material Model

The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive industries. While there are several composite material models currently available within LS-DYNA, there are several features that have been identified that could improve the predictive capability of a composite model. To address these needs, a combined plasticity and damage model suitable for use with both solid and shell elements is being developed and is being implemented into LS-DYNA as MAT_213. A key feature of the improved material model is the use of tabulated stress-strain data in a variety of coordinate directions to fully define the stress-strain response of the material. To date, the model development efforts have been focused on creating the plasticity portion of the model. The Tsai-Wu development efforts have focused on creating the plasticity portion of the model. The Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic material model with a non-associative flow rule. The coefficients of the yield function, and the stresses to be used in both the yield function and the flow rule are computed based on the input stress-strain curves using the effective plastic strain as the tracking variable. The coefficients in the flow rule are computed based on the obtained stress-strain data. The developed material model is suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA for use in analyzing the nonlinear response of polymer composites.

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Mechanical Plasticity Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Composites Research Papers Validation


Verification and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Generalized Composite Material Model

"A general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic computational constitutive material model has been developed to accurately predict the response of composites subjected to high velocity impact. The three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model is being implemented initially for solid elements in LS-DYNA® as MAT213. In order to accurately represent the response of a composite, experimental stress-strain curves are utilized as input, allowing for a more general material model that can be used on a variety of composite applications. The theoretical details are discussed in a companion paper. This paper documents the implementation, verification and validation of the material model using the T800-F3900 fiber/resin composite material."

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Mechanical Plasticity Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Composites Research Papers Validation


Development of Material Input Data for Solid Elements under Crash Loads

"Heavy trucks have large masses and only small deformation zones. Because of this, they are loaded relatively severe in case of a crash. Under those conditions structural response is characterised not only by plastic deformation but also by failure in terms of cracks or fracture. Hence, failure prediction is essential for designing such parts. The following article describes the procedure of generating material models for failure prognosis of solid parts in the Commercial Vehicles Division at Daimler. Sheet metal parts are mostly discretised by shell elements. In this case the state of stress is characterized by hydrostatic pressure over von-Mises effective stress, the so-called triaxiality. For many real-life load cases which can be modeled by thin shells this ratio is between –2/3 and –2/3. Within this range the Gurson material model with the Tvergaard Needlemann addition leads to sufficiently accurate results. Furthermore, the Gurson material model allows considering the effect of element size, which amongst others is important for ductile materials. Most often however, in the case of solid parts the state of stress is more complex, which results in a triaxiality smaller than –1 or larger than 2/3. Gurson material models are usually validated based on shell meshes and tensile tests with flat bar specimen. If applied to solid parts, these models tend to underpredict failure . Thus, for solid parts the GURSON_JC material model is used. The Johnson Cook parameters are derived from an existing Gurson material model. Afterwards the material model is adapted to test results by modifying the load curve giving failure strain against triaxiality. This requires tensile tests"

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Mechanical Metals Rate Dependency Yielding/Failure analysis Automotive High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fracture in Aluminium

"To assess the problem of containment after a blade-off accident in an aero-engine by numerical simulation the FAA has instigated a research effort concerning failure prediction in a number of relevant materials. Aluminium kicked off the program which involved an intensive testing program providing failure data under different states of stress, different strain rates and different temperatures. In particular split Hopkinson bars were used to perform dynamic punch tests on plates of different thicknesses allowing to investigate the transition between different failure modes such as petaling and plugging. Ballistic impact tests were performed at NASA GRC for the purpose of validation. This paper focuses on the numerical simulation effort and a comparison with experimental data is done. The simulations were performed with LS-DYNA and a tabulated version of the Johnson-Cook material law was developed in order to increase the generality, flexibility and user-friendliness of the material model."

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Mechanical Metals Yielding/Failure analysis Aerospace and Defense High Speed Testing LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


Finite Element Analysis of Additively Manufactured Products

With the growing interest in 3D printing, there is a desire to accurately simulate the behavior of components made by this process. The layer by layer print process appears to create a morphology that is different from that from conventional manufacturing processes. This can have dramatic impact on the material properties, which in turn, can affect how the material is modeled in simulation. In the first stage of our work, we seek to test an additively manufactured material for mechanical properties and validate its use in ANSYS simulation using the Cornell Bike Crank model.

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Mechanical ANSYS Research Papers Validation 3D Printing


Comparison of Crash Models for Ductile Plastics

There is interest in quantifying the accuracy of different material models being used in LS-DYNA today for the modeling of plastics. In our study, we characterize two ductile, yet different materials, ABS and polypropylene for rate dependent tensile properties and use the data to develop material parameters for the material models commonly used for plastics: MAT_024 and its variants, MAT_089 and MAT_187. We then perform a falling dart impact test which produces a complex multi-axial stress state and simulate this experiment using LS-DYNA. For each material model we are able to compare simulation to actual experiment thereby obtaining a measure of fidelity of the simulation to reality. In this way, we can assess the benefits of using a particular material model for plastics simulation.

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Mechanical Plastics Rate Dependency LS-DYNA Research Papers Validation


Validation of Simulation Results Through Use of DIC Techniques 

It has long been desired to quantify the accuracy of simulation results. Through developments in digital image correlation (DIC) techniques, it is now possible to quantify the deviation between simulation and real life experimentation. In this paper, three-dimension DIC measurements of deformed parts are compared to deformed surfaces predicted in simulation. Using DIC, it is possible to import deformed surface elements from simulation and map the magnitude of deviation from the measurements of the actual deformed shape.

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High Speed Testing Nonlinear Material Models Structural Analysis ANSYS Presentations Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '13, Volume 19.3

Digital Image Correlation Techniques Enhance Composite Testing Capability. Store and Manage Properties of Structured Composites with a Matereality® Database.

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Automotive LS-DYNA Abaqus Composites Newsletters Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Spring '13, Volume 19.2

Validating Simulation Using Digital Image Correlation. New TestPaks® for PlanetsX Injection Molding CAE Software Added to Test Catalog.

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Abaqus PlanetsX Newsletters Validation


Datapoint Newsletter: Summer '08, Volume 14.2

New Tests and TestPaks. New Presentations On-line.

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LS-DYNA RADIOSS VISI Flow Newsletters Validation